Paper Six, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Shih-Yu Chen, PhD Researcher, Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage, University of Birmingham; Megumu Ujitani; and Yuuka Sato and Kimiko Yokogawa, The University of Tokyo, Mukogawa Women’s University.
PhD Researcher, Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage
The museum is a powerful site of representation, ‘what’ and ‘how’ objects are displayed in museums does not only concern issues of ownership but also carries a symbolism which has social and political consequences. This paper will look at the changing relations between museums and the Indigenous communities of Taiwan and how these relationships are manifest in the collections, exhibitions and communication strategies of the museums.
To provide some historical context and trajectories of change I examine how the Indigenous peoples of Taiwan were represented in museums and exhibitions in early 20th century colonial regimes. I then discuss the changes in representation of indigenous peoples within post-war Taiwan and how this relates to the expansion in the number of museums over recent years and to the complex search for national identity which invokes echoes of the Japanese colonial period and the dominance of Han Chinese heritage. I utilize James Clifford’s idea of the museum as a contact zone to explore strategies of “culture-collecting” and the extent to which this can be seen as a response to particular political conditions, such as histories of dominance, hierarchy and resistance. As contact zones, museums can help communities negotiate difficult cultural and political problems through dialogue and alliances. Furthermore, in order to identify some of the key themes which also relate to Taiwan, the paper will also draw upon cases in Taiwan, and how emerging partnerships and collaborations between Indigenous communities and the museum sectors are assisting in re-thinking the issues around the representation of indigenous peoples by asserting new political relationships through their material culture (Hendry, 2005).
Keywords: museum, Indigenous peoples, representations, politics
My research interest is looking at the ways in which the Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan are represented and, the extent to which they are represented fully reflects not only their historical position but also contemporary social and political issues which affect them.
Investigation of SMART Museum in University and Community – Through Chubu University
Globalization refers to increasing cross-border movements, information and ideas as well as people. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) refers to the educational processes by which people development, behaviour and lifestyles required for a sustainable future and for positive societal transformation…
Investigation of SMART Museum in University and Community at Chubu University.
Yuuka Sato and Kimiko Yokogawa
The University of Tokyo, Mukogawa Women’s University
The “Museum SALON” in the University Museum: Research, Education, Communication
This paper provides an overview of the use of the Shizu Nakata collection in “Museum SALON” events at the Mukogawa Women’s University Museum over a period of three years. The paper will describe the use of the Nakata collection, its inclusion in community led research, and the incorporation of the Salon into teaching at the university. The conclusion will offer insights into how a university museum can contribute to research, education, and the local community.
The Nakata collection contains about 17,000 items representative of women’s daily life in Osaka from the Showa and Heisei periods (1920s-1990s). The collection contains novelty items from department stores, banks and other shops, as well as clothing and many items still in wide use today, though the original significance of each item is not known. The Salon was created as part of the research plan for the Nakata collection. Local women in their 60s-70s participate in the project along with university student staff members. Six Salon event have been held, focusing on the themes of novelty items, home decoration, and gift giving. The main activity of the Salon is to stir the memories of participants with collection materials, and have them talk about their own experience. By making a connection between the collection materials and the living memories of the culture of daily life, rich contextual data about the collection can be gathered.
Paper Seven, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Tsuyoshi Yagi, Mari Fujimoto and Moeko Ueda; Shih-Hui Li, PhD Researcher, School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester; and Yiping Lu.
Tsuyoshi Yagi, Mari Fujimoto and Moeko Ueda
Outreach initiative in the local public museum, project management and impact to the local community
Public Museum should provide the opportunity to receive an equal service to residents. However, accessibility of the residents are restricted by the distance from the museum. Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo, have focused on outreach activities to correct the use disparities. A new indicator “total number of users” was designed for the numerical evaluation in museum, which including the number of museum outside users. Outreach activity “Caravan”, started from 2002, had been carried out in cooperation with local communities, schools, local government etc. and also contributed to museum staff training. In 2012 we introduced a vehicle for outreach that increased and diversified outreach activities. Distribution of schools visited to the museum suggested that trip to the museum was strictly restricted by the time required from the museum to school, regional disparities has been suggested. By an attempt to outreach to distant rural schools, we re-recognized the needs and effects of outreach to schools. Management resources of the museum should be optimally divided to the service inside museum and outreach.
PhD Researcher, School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester
Attempting to be a ‘museum for people’, the National Museum of Taiwan History has devoted to tell Taiwan’s story by ‘looking after both sides of scholars (elites) and the people’, which signifies that the making of museum’s historical narrative should consider both academic history and how the ‘unofficial sources of historical knowledge’ especially people’s memories and life experiences enter into academic historical narratives. On this premise, this paper suggests that in modern democratic, multicultural, social inclusive, and community-oriented museums, people’s narrative and the ‘materials from everyday people, including emails, photographs and paper communications’ are indispensible historical data in constructing an inclusive historical story; in the meantime, the situated nature of knowledge and the political positioning of museum authority, which can be challenged by the experience, beliefs, and emotions that visitors bring with them.
Keywords: National Museum of Taiwan History, shared authority, multiculturalism, identity, people’s narrative
I am a PhD student at the School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester. I hold a MA and BA degree in history from National Taiwan University. Based on my academic training of historical studies, I take the newly built National Museum of Taiwan History as a case study for my PhD research in which I discuss about how Taiwan history, constructed as a new national history presented in the museum. For the research interests in historical narratives in museums and exhibitions, what I concern is not only the presentation of museum’s professional and academic historical knowledge, but also how people’s narratives, as a new historical data are used in the construction of museum’s narratives.
The Social Responsibility of the Museum – A case study of two exhibitions about Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
The purpose of this study was to explore two exhibitions relating to Typhoon Morakot. one of the exhibitions was in the Shiaolin Pingpu Cultural Museum, and the other exhibition was in the National Science and Technology Museum. This study was focused on the social responsibility, reaction and exhibition atmosphere of a museum after Typhoon Morakot.
The museums in Taiwan started to value the relationship between natural disasters and the following impacts after earthquake 921. Now, it’s the accomplishment of first stage reconstruction in disaster area after Typhoon Morakot. Museums are facing how to exhibit Typhoon Morakot. Shiaolin Pingpu Cultural Museum exhibited the past Shiaolin Village , the National Science and Technology Museum introduced the achievement of disaster area reconstruction. Although these exhibitions were displayed with different viewpoints, the museums should pay attention to the present condition of Shiaolin Village and the customs of villagers when they arranged exhibitions.
The next stage of the reconstruction is to enhance the understanding between disaster area and outer society, recover the grief of Typhoon Morakot, and revive the culture of villagers. The museums should interact with the local residents to achieve the goal.
Paper Eight, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Petrina Foti, PhD Researcher, School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester; Gerard Corsane, Kat Lloyd, Aron Mazel and Andrew Newman, Senior Lecturer in Heriateg, Museum and Gallery Studies, International Centre for Cultural Heritage Studies, Newcastle University; and Tomohisa Mori.
PhD Researcher, School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester
Agile Curation at the Smithsonian Museums: The Challenge of Computer-Based Technology Collections
The main objective of this study is to investigate how the curatorial staff at the history and technology museums of the Smithsonian Institution have responded to the challenge of collecting objects that contain computer-based technology. This current research will attempt to illustrate how curatorial expertise, through contemporary collecting, can respond with agility and creativity to unknown types of technology. In doing so, the critical role that 21st-century curators play within the museum will be examined and how the museum both contributes to and is influenced by modern society’s understanding of these new technologies will be explored. What is emerging is a responsive and distributed model of curatorship, one that has been honed by a long tradition of technology-related collection stewardship and one that is fully prepared to answer the challenges posed by computer-based technology, revealing the museum as a trusted source for context and clarity in a rapidly evolving world.
Keywords: Smithsonian, curation, computer technology, curatorial history, contemporary collections
Petrina Foti is a PhD candidate in the School of Museum Studies at the University of Leicester. She is specifically interested in the curatorial history of collections that contain computer-based technology at the Smithsonian Institution, with specific attention given to the concepts of collection stewardship and contemporary collecting. She has held various museum positions including a post from 2006 – 2011 in the Computers Collections at the National Museum of American History.
Gerard Corsane, Kat Lloyd, Aron Mazel and Andrew Newman
Senior Lecturer in Heriateg, Museum and Gallery Studies, International Centre for Cultural Heritage Studies, Newcastle University
Co-curating place and memories: co-creation in heritage and museological processes of research, documentation and communication using digital technologies
Traditional approaches to research, documentation, ‘collecting’ and communication in the heritage sector have tended to adopt an ‘outreach’ model of community participation, whereby community groups are ‘invited in’ to the museum or archive to contribute to an exhibition or project determined by the organisation. The stated outcome of such initiatives is often that participation in the project will enable community groups to feel ‘included’ within the story of a place and thus gain a greater sense of belonging. However, such approaches have been criticised for re-affirming a hierarchical relationships between those at the ‘core’ and the ‘margins’ failing to address questions of who is doing the including and under what terms? What happens then, if this process is reversed, from ‘outreach’ to ‘inreach’ (Corsane 2006), whereby heritage, museum and archive organisations, have adopted ‘ecomuseological’-like guidelines and documentation and research approaches, act as facilitators for community-led research, rather than as gatekeepers? How can heritage, museum and archival organisations serve the needs of their various communities who want to use historical and contemporary material to explore questions of identity, belonging and a sense of place on their own terms? And how might this research contribute to a wider understanding of complexities of place and what it mans to ‘belong’?
This paper considers these questions in relation to two projects that Newcastle University has been involved in facilitating. These are the ‘en-compass’ project funded by the European Commission, with partners in the North East of England, Kenya in Africa, Guyana in South America and Hainan Province in the People’s Republic of China; and, the Co-Curate North East project funded under the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council’s scheme Digital Transformation in Community Research Co-Production. Both projects involve the co-creation and co-curation of digital collections and archives that include input for a range of stakeholders. Both projects follow the guidelines of the ecomuseum ideal, with the philosophies of ‘inreach’, empowerment, shared ownership and accessible resources that promote cultural diversity, and affirmation of cultural identities.
This paper will engage with the theory behind these projects and the practical application in each. It will share issues and difficulties encountered and will discuss how important ‘processes’ are in these types of projects that promote co-curation in shared activities of research, documentation, ‘collection’ and communication of heritage, museum and archival resources through digital technologies.
A Study on the construction of Museum Collection Public Data in the XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Transition from the fixed List Model to the Variable List Model
According to the development of ICT, Archival science and Records management science have been changing in the museum. For that influence, local history museum registration has been changing, also. It urges to develop a common standardized classification of historical documents and materials.
I actually construct Museum Collection Public Data (data-base model with image) in the XML, and examine the ways in which XML (eXtensible Markup Language) documents can be utilized in order to promote the use of information media. XML documents are convenient for he selection or sorting of materials, the addition of information, calculation and search. Based on this, I consider relationship between standardization trends of museum object with Museum Collection Public Data.
There are documents which I examine in Goka area, Sashima-gun, Ibaragi Prefecture. Goka area located almost in the center of Kanto Plain, the border areas of the Shimousa-no-kuni and Musashi-no-kuni, also ituated on the border of Ibaragi Prefecture, Chiba Prefecture and Saitama Prefecture, is one of the important areas of Tone river, when we talk about the history of Tone river.
Paper Nine, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Geuntae Park, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul; Michiyo Takada; and Naoki Shimoyu.
National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul
This paper introduces a case study of National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Korea (MMCA) in order to show how it has changed its management direction according to increased branches. In 2013 MMCA Seoul opened in central Seoul in addition to its previous two branches in Gwacheon and Deoksugung. Another branch is coming to Cheongju, whose architectural design process is on the way aiming to open within a couple of years from now. It will find that MMCA has tried to put unique characteristic on each branch. For example, MMCA Gwacheon keeps its position as a main branch with containing traditional arts genres, and MMCA Deoksugung focuses on modern period of Korean arts. A recent built MMCA Seoul explores more interdisciplinary arts, and MMCA Cheongju plays a role as a main storage of the whole branches while providing access to its collection to visitors.
Keywords: Art museum, Korean museums, museum architecture
Geuntae studied architecture at Seoul National University and did an MA in Museum Studies at George Washington University, Washington DC. After working several museums and research institutes, he completed his PhD in School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester. He is currently working as a curator at National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Korea. He is interested in the area of culture-led urban strategies and museum architecture.
The Introduction of Small Museum Network
Museums are important to the education and cultural development. However many of them are small and hard to manage. Small museum network (Chiisaitoko) was established in 2010. To manage museums as a member of the local community, we have mailing list and hold annual Summit.
The program if a new cooperation in Chiyoda-city – From MLA cooperation to Multi cooperation
Currently, social education facilities presented in museums and libraries continuation of business is threatened by the reduction of the recession and the culture budget from the fold, you are met with hardship of business reduction or discontinuation. In addition, the response to the recent rapid social change and citizens needs, diversification of social education, has been advanced is required. Is a “cooperation” of the other facilities were been taken as one of the ways to overcome the current situation. Human resources and budget not be catering alone facilities, content, information, what comes when the creating mechanisms that go longer sharing and cultural resources is the fact there is no doubt. Future mutually cooperation throughout the region, to improve the cultural force of the entire region, the future what to co-existence and co-prosperity, we or will not be in a potion sought. We propose a new cooperation model “Multi cooperation” as a guide to break away from one of the cooperation model that MLA cooperation also in that sense.
Paper Ten, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Tsuyoshi Yanagisawa; Noboru Sakamoto; and Tomonori Komada.
The users’ preference to museum: from a survey on museums of Tama region
Grasping museum user preference is a vital future element. User and resident preference as well as museum versus user preference in the Tama region were considered. Users, not museums, were more conscious of “city planning”. The residents tended to avoid museums for its lack of practicality.
Regional cooperation in a project on insects: Singing insects and Gocho
The project “singing Insects and Gocho” aims to enable visitors to enjoy autumn through the songs of singing insects (bell, crickets, etc.) exhibited in shopping districts and streets in the central city area. As a part of this project, various events and exhibitions are held by different communities.
In this project, the relationship between the museum and regional residents is not only that of administrators and visitors but also that of partners. Further the exhibits serve as tools for communication among residents. One role played by the museum is to revitalize the regional community by museum collections and knowledge.
Promotion of Community Building in Collaboration with Museums along “Saigoku Kaido”
Rekishikaido Promotional Council was founded in 1991. One of the purposes of this council is to promote the community building which revitalizes local areas. Along the old road “Saigoku Kaido” between Kyoto and Osaka, Rekishikaido Promotional Council have cooperated with the museum along this old road to promote community building since 2010. This year we have held the forum and the series of the walks along “Saigoku Kaido” and so on. The theme of the forum is about the old roads across “Saigoku Kaido”. More than 100 people gathered at this forum and have understood more about “Saigoku Kaido” and other old roads across it. After this forum each museum along “Saigoku Kaido” held the walks with description about “Saigoku Kaido” of researchers of the museums. The result of these events is that we can see cooperation of the museums to do these events in spite that there is the border between the local governments.
Also we can observe the active communication among the researchers of the museums. The problem of this promotional events is that we have the same theme from the beginning of this activity. So these events are on the trend of falling the mannerism. But we will be able to solve this problem by the active communication among the researchers. And we hope that we will cooperate with other cooperations which promote community buildings in other areas.
Paper Eleven, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Motoko Shonaka-Harada, Mika Matsuo, Akihiko Mizuishi and Yoshikazu Ogawa; Taisuke Ohtsuka; and Seiji Kodate.
Motoko Shonaka-Harada, Mika Matsuo, Akihiko Mizuishi and Yoshikazu Ogawa
The Experimental Learning Program which Supports the Visitors to Create New Value of Objects
This research holds the following two goals. One is to establish the museum lifelong learning system which urges the communication between the museum visitors and museums to foster the science literacy in the knowledge circulating society. Another one is to develop the educational programs which suit this system.
In an educational program which was developed in this research, participants were asked to take a photograph of the objects in the galleries which they thought would most fit their given “word” from a Japanese dictionary. This photo was later put together with the word and its interpretation. In the end, every artwork was presented by each participant.
In this program, there is nothing wrong if the participants got the display’s impressions which are different from the museum’s intent. They are allowed to perceive the word and the display in various ways and express their thoughts freely. In another word, participants can create the value which museum side did not intend to put on displays. Also, this gives the opportunities to the museum side to realize how their stories on displays are interpreted by the visitors. What is more, participants can get to know how other regard things differently. It can be probably said that this program has the new learning possibilities.
This paper also considers the significance of putting the participants’ artwork on internet.
Museum learning/studying toward a better relationship between humans and lakes
Participatory research conducted by the museum can be understood as (re-)construction of systematic knowledge through experiential learning. Problem-posing educational programs might be effective for museums that address environmental problems, because it raises critical consciousness and then social activities through dialogue. Such an outcome, however, is rarely realized, probably because museums are usually bound by the style and method of traditional institutionalized education. The “Haishikake” system of the Lake Biwa Museum, a system for the development of participants in museum activities as co-creators, has produced original findings on geometric models of diatom valves, as well as academic papers based on these models. The process of the development of these findings and their acceptance by the academic community are analysed as an example of “learning by expanding”. Hereafter museum education conducted through interactive programs must direct participants not only toward specialized subjects, but also toward better citizenship based on broad and critical insights. Museums are also urged to aim at developing innovative activities through productive matchmaking between heterogeneous groups or individuals.
Partnership with the Museum and Senior Citizen’s College – Outreach Education for Preschool Children and School Children
The Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo started Outreach Education (called “Hitohaku caravan”) in 2001 to propagate the activities of museum (exhibitions, seminars, collections and researchers by curators). For preschool children and school children, “Hitohaku kids caravan” began in 2011 to increase scientific literacy. In this program, we always have an orientation for staff (kindergarten teachers, nursery school teachers, parents etc.) We visit the places in advance and collect local plants and rocks for the program. By using these local natural materials, the program can be more familiar for children. In addition, local persons in advanced years (students of senior citizen’s college and its graduates) participate in the program and help us to work from 2012. Through these experiences, they can get on with children and will guide them in future.
Paper Twelve, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Yuichi Kameyama; Miyuki Uchiumi; and Koichiro Fumoto and Yasuyuki Hirai.
Consideration of “connection” exhibition aiming at establishment of agile museum exhibition theory
Exhibition has great role to communicate in museums. Therefore, corresponding to drastic technical advancements, visitors’ preferences and changes in their life style, are expected in theory and in practice in museum communication today.
Here I’d like to point out “connections” in museums such as connection between nature and humans, and between humans and human, which are recently becoming more popular. Exhibition methods and their effect study are done from exhibition examples including from natural history, folklore history, and lifestyle culture. From these studies of “connections” in exhibition, direction which communication within museum should take is proposed.
Changing from “There is an exhibition” to “It becomes an exhibition”: Focusing on interaction theory in J. Dewey’s experience theory
In this essay, I insist the importance of direction by John Dewey. This essay tries to think of an exhibition as a “become” phenomenon. On the basis of Dewey’s theory, a visitor’s learning is an interaction. In other words, the visitor has an interaction with the display, and we that the process is essence of learning in museum. Moreover, on the exhibition side, without having an interaction with the visitor, the exhibition can’t exist.
So far, the exhibition thinks as a “There is an exhibition”. In other words, display can exist even is there is no interaction with a visitor. Because the exhibition is thought as an object of putting information. In this case, learning in the museum means move the information from the exhibition the visitor precisely.
However, it is hard to say that. Because the exhibition cannot exist itself. Even if put huge and splendid information on the exhibitions, and even if make a fabulous exhibition, there’s no meaning when a visitor cannot recognize them. There is just only an “object” at that time, moreover, that is not “exhibition”. That is, by the opportunity of having an interaction with the visitor, the exhibition “becomes” the exhibition for the first time.
Koichiro Fumoto and Yasuyuki Hirai
Study on the Development of an Interactive Tactile Map for Museum
The purpose of this study is to analyse requirements of tactile maps for all visitors at museum through developing prototypes and user testing. We selected a floor information map of the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka as a case study. The system of the new tactile map is made of a transparent panel in the shape of a floor map on a touch panel display and an interactive software which presents vocal guidance of locations and routes of the exhibition area by touching software buttons on the interface; its locations of buttons and the routes are represented concave circle and groove. This report presents its specs and process of development with evaluations of visually impaired people as users.
Paper Thirteen, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Ya-Hsuan Wang, PhD Researcher, National Taiwan University of Arts, Graduate School of Art Management and Culture Policy; Kazuyoshi Sasaki, Susumu Nozoe, Shinichiro Kobashi, Makoto Hasegawa and Kenichi Sueda, The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan), Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Research and planning staff, Science Communicator, Chief Engineer, Chief Engineer, Chief Engineer; and Yayoi Tsutsui.
PhD Researcher, National Taiwan University of Arts, Graduate School of Art Management and Culture Policy
Image licensing originated in the 19th century with the proliferation of photography. Museum put a lot of funds and resources to digitalization program in 21th century, it lead digital image license issues in museum community. Museum’s digital archives are more than photographs—they are cultural carriers, enabling greater access to museum collections. Therefore, balancing the economic and cultural uses of an image has always been a key issue in museum image licensing policy, and consideration of the public domain is another issue that easily gives rise to controversy.
The digital image licensing policy of museum in Taiwan is still protective. This has caused we to reflect—how can digital image licensing policy of museum continue to develop in a way that is in line with the fast-paced changes of our generation? How can museums’ collections of cultural heritage reflect the core spirit of sharing to public that our society has come to value so much? The digital images of plane collections under public domain were the bridge for the open access in Taiwan.
It is hopeful that Taiwanese museums can change their stance of license policy towards to not-for-profit purpose use of plane collections that are under public domain. Non-profits use of digital images through license such like Creative Commons are another option for museums to create more accessibility for outreach and educational purposes. At the same time, museums in Taiwan ought to change the conception of public domain practices from combating a purely focus on property right and economic value to cultural rights for public benefit. This would change the position of public domain of digital licensing policy in Taiwan, paving a way for more accessibility to digital images.
Keywords: copyright, image license, public domain, creative commons, digital archive
Ya Hsuan Wang is a Ph.D. student of Graduate School of Art Management and Cultural Policy at the National Taiwan University of Arts. Wang majors in Museology and focuses on art management of museum for years. Her recent research is about image licensing of museums, exploring the effect of digital transformation for museums, and analyzing the public domain of image licensing policy.
Kazuyoshi Sasaki, Susumu Nozoe, Shinichiro Kobashi, Makoto Hasegawa and Kenichi Sueda
The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan), Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Research and planning staff, Science Communicator, Chief Engineer, Chief Engineer, Chief Engineer
Creating Successful and Progressive Cooperation between Museums and Developers featuring the Personal Mobility Device “UNICUB”
Productive relationships between museums and developer companies are important for all concerned, and this article will introduce a successful example recently experienced at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan). Miraikan conducted a joint demonstration testing the “UNI-CUB” in cooperation with HONDA. “UNI-CUB” is a new, personal mobility device under development, and its derived its technology from “ASIMO”, the humanoid robot.
As a national museum of Japan, Maraikan, with HONDA, organized and conducted a joint experiment utilizing Maraikan’s museum environment. We launched the experiment on June, 2012 to test the feasibility of using it within a real environment. There were multiple purposes for this cooperative experiment: 1) imaging future mobility by appealing to visitors; 2) offering information on cutting-edge robotics technology; and 3) evaluating the possibility of a new visitor service in museums. Each were considered and discussed over the year-long event on the values of “UNI-CUB” as a new device, a new robot, and new represented technology.
We developed a wide range of new activities, such as demonstrations, and original guided tours with the “UNI-CUB” and visitors in our museum. We also arranged safety and training protocols for the “UNI-CUB” needed for social implementation of this new technology. As a result, we discovered a science museum is a practical venue for visitors to interact with developers through new science an technology.
The Role of Museum Archives, learning from American Experiences
This paper shows the role of the museum archives, which impacts museum management, learning from the recent activities by the Society of American Archivists Museum Archives Section focused on the Standards and Best practices.
Paper Fourteen, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Jesusa E. Garcia, Museum Researcher; Toru Tateishi and Shigemasa Udagawa; and Takashi Toda.
Jesusa E. Garcia
Conversation/Conservation: Managing challenges in exhibiting contemporary art
Michel Foucault addresses power as a relationship in which mechanisms of power produce diverse knowledge. It is a constant struggle wherein resolving conflicts is influenced by organizational structure within an institution. This is evident in the space of a museum, an institution governed by key players trained in various expertise needed for its management. The curator engages on the curatorial aspects while the conservator (or collections manager) employs the museum’s conservation needs. Their roles often work conjointly for the exhibitions, but sometimes discord arises when artistic creations pose challenges in the conservation practices of the museum. In an art museum, it is inevitable to exhibit contemporary works that utilize new medium and materials which are not only difficult to conserve but sometimes are also detrimental and destructive. These include organic materials such as untreated wood, food, plants, soil and the likes that usually bring pest, cultivate growth of molds and hasten the materials’ deterioration process. Most museums in the Philippines resort to preventative conservation as a general practice due to lack of funding and resources, few properly-trained museum workers and nominal number of conservation experts. Hence, approaches in reducing, controlling or supressing entirely possible harmful materials that may affect or fasten the deterioration of artworks exhibited in the galleries are the usual practices. Problems then arise when the museum restricts the entry of artworks that may pose threat to other objects in the gallery or impede the conservation policy of the museum. Compromises are drawn out, but these may weaken the artist’s intent and original concept or alter the viewing experience of a museumgoer. Moreover, decision-making and negotiations is influenced by the power structure in the museum space and the art scene. This inevitable conflict in contemporary art and museum between curatorial and conservation aspect exemplifies the response that the institution constantly works on: a response that should be flexible, agile, adaptive, but at the same time efficient, upholds the standard, and does not lose the integrity of the exhibition.
Toru Tateishi and Shigemasa Udagawa
Conservation and exhibition of mural paintings of tumuluses
Mural paintings of tumuluses are monuments (immovable), but they also have the aspect of arts and crafts (paintings in general are moveables, but in this case they are immovable). Stone chambers and dromos of tumuluses are built underground and their environment is generally highly humid. In addition, their space is usually very narrow. It is very difficult to conserve and open the paintings to public under such conditions. Various efforts and attempts are made in different areas of the nation. This report will introduce the unique conservation and publication examples of mural paintings from home and abroad, with focus on Japanese examples. It will then give a brief overview of the project and the latest trend at the Takamatsuka and Kitora tumuluses, where mural paintings had to be removed in order to restore them. Finallym some prospects will be shown for future conservation and exhibition of these materials.
A Trial for the Theory of Museums “Subsidiary” Functions
Museum facilities and activities sometimes have “subsidiary” functions that do not necessarily address the original goals. Recently, museum activities focusing on such functions have been on the increase, but there is little consensus among those involved with museums as to the theoretical positioning of such activities.
We first provide a comprehensive overview of such “subsidiary” functions. These are defined as instances in which museum facilities and activities that were originally designed for the particular purposes are used otherwise. This definition allows us to recognize three general types of derivation of “subsidiary” function: 1) derivation from the functions aimed at providing space to share the process and results of museum’s research; 2) derivation from the functions aimed at introducing the potential held by museum materials; 3) derivation from the functions aimed at offering the results of investigations to the public. The “subsidiary” functions that are derived from those providing space are related to the theoretical positioning of ~”usage of facilities outside their original purpose”, “methods of gathering people together”, and “users’ whereabouts”, while the functions derived from those that offer results are related to the theoretical positioning of “active learnin” and “interactions between learners”.
Paper Fifteen, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Ying-Shan Lin, National Taiwan University of Arts, Graduate School of Art Management and Culture Policy; Chao-Shiang Li, PhD Researcher, Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage, University of Birmingham; and Tzon-Wei Huang, Assistant Curator, National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall.
National Taiwan University of Arts, Graduate School of Art Management and Culture Policy
Reuse and renewal of industrial heritage sites has become popular in Taiwan. For Taiwanese officials and the public, whether sites of industrial heritage should be preserved, or if the government should simply tear down the site and build them anew, is still a much-debated question. In this paper, I argue that although industrial heritage have lost their functions, they still have historical and cultural importance. Therefore, I consider the use industrial heritage sites as museums is the most appropriate way to let people know and understand the meaning and value of industrial heritage. Industrial museum can use architectural strategies, spatial choreography and content arrangement to provoke an open reception and interpretation of the past, present and future. Display design and methods in the industrial heritage museum should let visitors experience the space by themselves and help them connect the new concept and old objects. Through experience, visitors will have their own connection with the industrial machines and devices. Despite the changes that have been made, this impressive site of industrial heritage is not just a container for the objects on display; instead, it forms part of the exhibition itself. In short, the spatial arrangement and display design does not compete with the impressiveness of the space but rather helps visitors to move through it.
Keywords: industrial heritage, spatial arrangement, display design, Ruhr Museum
Ying-Shan Lin is currently a Ph.D. student in the graduate school of Art Management and Culture Policy of the National Taiwan University of Art in Taiwan. She was also an Associate Researcher at the Taiwan Cultural Policy Research Center since May, 2014.
She completed her Master degree in European Cultural Policy and Management in 2010 at the University of Warwick, UK and Cultural/Creative Industries Management in 2007 at the National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan. Before her academic pursuits, she also held positions with academia and various corporate and cultural businesses in Taipei. She worked for United Daily News Group as marketing assistant and an activities PR personnel in the Common Wealth Magazine.
Lin’s primary research interests lie in the festival management and she is currently researching on the Taiwan’s museum and industrial heritage policy.
PhD Researcher, Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage, University of Birmingham
Building Museum and Constructing Narrative: historical Architecture and its Colonial Past in Taiwan
Architecture sits within a museum discourse that has been transformed in recent decades through rebuilding and renovation on an international scale. In Taiwan, the reuse of Japanese-built architecture as museum reflects a shifting value at a post-colonial perspective. Currently, there is over two fifths of historical buildings and heritage sites in Taiwan built during the Japanese rule period. The two research cases, the former Nanmen Camphor factory and the Northern Thermal Power Plant are now reused as the museum. The research examines both of them through their different museumization approaches and analyses how the narratives are demonstrated respectively. Importantly, it reveals the problematic phenomena for boundaries and possibilities of the museum.
Keywords: Museum Architecture, Narrative, Historical Building, Colonial Past
Assistant Curator, National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
Visible rubbish or Tangible heritage
‘Taipei Railway Workshop’ was built in 1935 and operated until the whole facility moved to a new location in Taoyuan country in 2012. The workshop covers 17 hectares in an area which consists of 12 shops and it is probably the last industrial area in Taipei City centre. The workshop was built during Japanese colonial time and inherited some facilities from the Qing government. Some machineries in the shops could be identified by its manufactured year and origin. Since the workshop relocated in Taoyuan, almost every shop is empty and what is left are unmovable machineries, unwanted rubbish and shop building. There are only a few abandoned train carriages left in the workshop.
From the 27th of September to the 26th October 2014 ‘Tapei Railway Culture Festival’ is held in ‘Taipei Railway Workshop’, a decommissioned railway maintenance facility in Taipei City. It aims to re-open its doors for public and ‘to re-use the space in the facility and revitalize it by ‘museumnise’ it, and hope to combine the creative business and cultural heritage all together into a mega-museum’. There are some vast shops are opened to the public for the first time, which were the storage yard, car cleaning areas, and inspection and light maintenance shed. One artist has used shops to install artworks by collecting various unwanted materials, furniture, and parts from trains to project light on an enormous screen through installation and tell stories about cities. Another one has play hundred recordings from different train stations all over Taiwan in a shop. However, some activities active groups see this festival as a devastating disaster for a potential railway museum in the future. They criticise the Department of cultural Affairs from Taipei City government not to preserve those ‘vital material evidences’ left in the workshop, especially those used in the art installation within the shops. They also blamed Taiwan Railways Administration, from the Ministry of Transportation and Communications not able to see this important industrial heritage.
On one ways, the artist, commissioned by the Department of Cultural Affairs, uses ‘the unwanted’ materials to compose artworks to express their interpretation of on-site materials, and hope to inspire audiences to imagine a beautiful city landscape; on another way, those active group who wants to preserve as many as possible in the workshop believe nothing should be moved in the workshop because it might lose important materials. From this event, both parties in fact share the similar intention to give inspiration to people. The different reactions from both sides however shape the complicated nature of material culture. It will be explored further throughout this event and hope to grasp the key to an agile approach to its interpretation.
Paper Sixteen, given on 15 January 2015, included presentations from:
Valentina Amonti, Independent Researcher; Misako Namiki; Takayoshi Kito and Ayumi Kimura; and Keizo Kakiuchi.
The intention of my paper is to present the example of the historic Tridentine Museum of Natural Sciences (of Trento), MUSE today, which has become an exception among the large number of Italian museums due to its ability to adapt to innovations in museology, in addition to consistent and attractive educational offer.
During the time, more and more significant acquisitions and donations have have enriched the collections with artifacts from different backgrounds and types. Moreover, more and more specific research in the fields of paleontology, zoology, and botany have multiplied, whereas the promotion and the protection of nature and landscape have also bloomed. Particular attention has been paid to the involvement of visitors in what the museum displays: Interactive exhibits, hands-on, explanatory panels, human reconstructions, dioramas, and so on, all have been prepared with the intent of putting the visitors at the centre of the exhibitions.
The educational proposals have also been conceived and designed to make the consumers experience the museum in a perspective of lifelong learning and to promote science through a new educational paradigm, the ‘edutainment’, a blend of “educational and entertainment”.
Keywords: Natural Museum, science center, entertainment, hands on.
My name’s Valentina Amonti, I’m Italian and I’m 26 years old. I came from Castiglione delle stiviere, a little country in Lombardia, north of Italy.
I’m degree in Conservation and Management of Cultural Heritage and since 2012 I work at Group Reservation at MUSE – Natural & Science Museum of Trento.
What is needed to connect the visitors’ zoo experience to wildlife conservation
The author introduced the program which put animal observation and the contents in the dialogue between the participants and reported the intercommunication in practice of the zoo education, which would lead to conservation of wildlife. Also the author emphasized communicative way of conservation program in International Training Course in DWCT, then did the proposition that the zoo visitors are being seen as participants to wildlife conservation activity through dialogue between zoo staff and visitors, visitors themselves also.
Takayoshi Kito and Ayumi Kimura
The gap between the learning by children and the strategy that museums enhance them learning will
In this presentation, we view the existing condition that the purpose and meaning of the action for children museums intend to plan isn’t necessarily connected with children’s leaning and turn into their entertainment through some examples and suggest its solution. We have visited some museum in the Tokai aria together and observed the display for children and visitor’s behaviour. As a result, we have watched below; first in collecting of stamps, children don’s watch the display but aim at its complete; second the quiz rally encourage children watch the display but children don’t watch the parts of the display irrelevant to the quiz rally; third worksheet that the museums prepared for off-campus activities prompt children to always copy captions and not to observe display in detail; in addition the captions for children are sometimes wrong in background research or often mingle ideology such as nationalism despite museums’ professing neutral and objective. Therefore, we seem that museums need to challenge the children to observe and display and read the caption critically by using museums’ libraries as their training program.
Children’s museum to be revived once again – Rebirth of public facilities for children and the local community
The Sasayama City Children’s Museum, opened by the City of Sasayama in 2001 in the hope of nurturing the children of the region’s zest for life, was a great case of reusing the wooden building of a closed-down junior school.
However, when Sasayama City fell into economic difficulty the museum became the target of financial reforms. In addition, with a declining birth rate the local area questioned its necessity. Before long, following the second management change in 2012, the museum was forced to close and there were fears that the building would become abandoned.
However, the volunteer groups who had supported the museum since its opening has seen the region’s children, who had used the museum and returned after they had grown up, as well as how the volunteering activities were encouraging to the elderly, and they believed in the importance of the museum to the region.
In order to open the museum again it was necessary for the people involved with the museum, the region, and the local government, to rethink about whether there really was a problem in the first place. In the midst of financial difficulty, with the help of the citizens they thought of ways to control the maintenance costs, return the links to the region, and with co-operation from groups, businesses and the network of museums, there was a change in outlook of the relationship 3ith the area leading to an announcement of plans to reopen the museum in 2013.